There are a variety of ways to treat sleep apnea, aside from Positive Airway Pressure therapy, depending on severity, suspected anatomic-physiologic mechanism and patient comfort and compliance.
It is assumed that the patients have already been advised about weight loss and positional maneuvers and avoidance of aggravating behaviors such as alcohol use and smoking or aggravating medicines such as sedatives, muscle relaxants, pain medicines among others. Oronasal devices may be used, and upper airway surgical procedures may be performed.
On many occasions, however, a multimodal or tiered approach is also used, including approaches incorporating PAP therapy. Many specialists are involved including dentists, orthodontists, otolaryngologists, oral-maxillofacial surgeons and bariatric surgeons. For weight loss, nutritionists, psychologists, trainers, and nonsurgical physicians are also involved.